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Future builds are represented by build requests, which are created by schedulers. When a new build request is created, it is added to the buildrequests table and an appropriate message is sent. This distribution process is re-run whenever an event occurs that may allow a new build to start. In particular, when a master receives a new-build-request message, it performs the equivalent of maybeStartBuildsForBuilder for the affected builder.
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Blocks are clustered into block groups in order to reduce fragmentation and minimise the amount of head seeking when reading a large amount of consecutive data. Information about each block group is kept in a descriptor table stored in the block s immediately after the superblock. Two blocks near the start of each group are reserved for the block usage bitmap and the inode usage bitmap which show which blocks and inodes are in use. Since each bitmap is limited to a single block, this means that the maximum size of a block group is 8 times the size of a block.
The block s following the bitmaps in each block group are designated as the inode table for that block group and the remainder are the data blocks. The block allocation algorithm attempts to allocate data blocks in the same block group as the inode which contains them. Directories This definition comes from the Linux Kernel Documentation with some minor alterations. A directory is a filesystem object and has an inode just like a file.
It is a specially formatted file containing records which associate each name with an inode number. Later revisions of the filesystem also encode the type of the object file, directory, symlink, device, fifo, socket to avoid the need to check the inode itself for this information The inode allocation code should try to assign inodes which are in the same block group as the directory in which they are first created.
The original Ext2 revision used singly-linked list to store the filenames in the directory; newer revisions are able to use hashes and binary trees. Also note that as directory grows additional blocks are assigned to store the additional file records.
When filenames are removed, some implementations do not free these additional blocks. Inodes This definition comes from the Linux Kernel Documentation with some minor alterations. The inode index node is a fundamental concept in the ext2 filesystem. Each object in the filesystem is represented by an inode. The inode structure contains pointers to the filesystem blocks which contain the data held in the object and all of the metadata about an object except its name.
There are some reserved fields which are currently unused in the inode structure and several which are overloaded. One field is reserved for the directory ACL if the inode is a directory and alternately for the top 32 bits of the file size if the inode is a regular file allowing file sizes larger than 2GB.
The translator field is unused under Linux, but is used by the HURD to reference the inode of a program which will be used to interpret this object. Most of the remaining reserved fields have been used up for both Linux and the HURD for larger owner and group fields, The HURD also has a larger mode field so it uses another of the remaining fields to store the extra bits.
There are pointers to the first 12 blocks which contain the file’s data in the inode. There is a pointer to an indirect block which contains pointers to the next set of blocks , a pointer to a doubly-indirect block which contains pointers to indirect blocks and a pointer to a trebly-indirect block which contains pointers to doubly-indirect blocks. Some filesystem specific behaviour flags are also stored and allow for specific filesystem behaviour on a per-file basis.
There are flags for secure deletion, undeletable, compression, synchronous updates, immutability, append-only, dumpable, no-atime, indexed directories, and data-journaling.
Many of the filesystem specific behaviour flags, like journaling, have been implemented in newer filesystems like Ext3 and Ext4, while some other are still under development.
All the inodes are stored in inode tables, with one inode table per block group. Superblocks This definition comes from the Linux Kernel Documentation with some minor alterations.
The superblock contains all the information about the configuration of the filesystem. The information in the superblock contains fields such as the total number of inodes and blocks in the filesystem and how many are free, how many inodes and blocks are in each block group, when the filesystem was mounted and if it was cleanly unmounted , when it was modified, what version of the filesystem it is and which OS created it.
The primary copy of the superblock is stored at an offset of bytes from the start of the device, and it is essential to mounting the filesystem. Since it is so important, backup copies of the superblock are stored in block groups throughout the filesystem.
The first version of ext2 revision 0 stores a copy at the start of every block group, along with backups of the group descriptor block s. Because this can consume a considerable amount of space for large filesystems, later revisions can optionally reduce the number of backup copies by only putting backups in specific groups this is the sparse superblock feature.
The groups chosen are 0, 1 and powers of 3, 5 and 7. Revision 1 and higher of the filesystem also store extra fields, such as a volume name, a unique identification number, the inode size, and space for optional filesystem features to store configuration info. All fields in the superblock as in all other ext2 structures are stored on the disc in little endian format, so a filesystem is portable between machines without having to know what machine it was created on.
Symbolic Links This definition comes from Wikipedia. A symbolic link also symlink or soft link is a special type of file that contains a reference to another file or directory in the form of an absolute or relative path and that affects pathname resolution. Symbolic links operate transparently for most operations: However, programs that need to handle symbolic links specially e. A symbolic link merely contains a text string that is interpreted and followed by the operating system as a path to another file or directory.
It is a file on its own and can exist independently of its target. The symbolic links do not affect an inode link count. If a symbolic link is deleted, its target remains unaffected. If the target is moved, renamed or deleted, any symbolic link that used to point to it continues to exist but now points to a non-existing file.
Symbolic links are also filesystem objects with inodes. For all symlink shorter than 60 bytes long, the data is stored within the inode itself; it uses the fields which would normally be used to store the pointers to data blocks.
This is a worthwhile optimisation as it we avoid allocating a full block for the symlink, and most symlinks are less than 60 characters long. Symbolic links can also point to files or directories of other partitions and file systems. Disk Organization.
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Blocks are clustered into block groups in order to reduce fragmentation and minimise the amount of head seeking when reading a large amount of consecutive data. Information about each block group is kept in a descriptor table stored in the block s immediately after the superblock. Two blocks near the start of each group are reserved for the block usage bitmap and the inode usage bitmap which show which blocks and inodes are in use. Since each bitmap is limited to a single block, this means that the maximum size of a block group is 8 times the size of a block. The block s following the bitmaps in each block group are designated as the inode table for that block group and the remainder are the data blocks.
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