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See also: History of Linux Linus Torvalds In April , Linus Torvalds , at the time a year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki , Finland , started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel assembly language and a terminal driver. On 25 August , Torvalds posted the following to comp. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready.
See also: History of Linux Linus Torvalds In April , Linus Torvalds , at the time a year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki , Finland , started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel assembly language and a terminal driver.
On 25 August , Torvalds posted the following to comp. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. I’ve currently ported bash 1. This implies that I’ll get something practical within a few months [ It is NOT portable uses task switching etc , and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that’s all I have: It uses every conceivable feature of the I could find, as it was also a project to teach me about the As already mentioned, it uses a MMU , for both paging not to disk yet and segmentation.
After that, many people contributed code to the project. At the time, the GNU Project had created many of the components required for a free operating system, but its own kernel, GNU Hurd , was incomplete and unavailable. The Berkeley Software Distribution had not yet freed itself from legal encumbrances.
Despite the limited functionality of the early versions, Linux rapidly gained developers and users. In September , Torvalds released version 0. It had 10, lines of code. On 5 October , version 0. This version was the first to be self-hosted as Linux kernel 0. When Torvalds released version 0. On 19 January , the first post to the new newsgroup alt. Unlike traditional monolithic kernels, device drivers in Linux are easily configured as loadable kernel modules and are loaded or unloaded while running the system.
This subject was revisited on 9 May ,  and on 12 May Tanenbaum wrote a position statement. Linux version 0. Odd-numbered releases were for tests and development. At the time, only even numbered version releases were production releases. The y is incremented as minor patches are released within a major version release.
Version 2. By structuring the Linux kernel along POSIX standards, it was compatible with a range of free software and applications that had been developed for universities.
Through an integrated FPU emulator , the Linux kernel can even run on hardware architectures that lack a floating point math coprocessor. Every 2. Stable 2. In October Adrian Bunk announced that he would maintain 2.
In September , Morton decided to stop maintaining this tree. BitKeeper was made available to Torvalds and several others free of charge but was not free software , which was a source of controversy.
In response, Torvalds and others wrote a new source code control system for the purpose, called Git. The new system was written within weeks, and in two months the first official kernel release was made using Git. Kernel 3. Volunteer developers contributed 16 percent of the total changes to the kernel in The other changes were contributions by professional software developers who were paid by a company to submit code to the kernel. In Red Hat developers contributed 10 percent of the changes made to the kernel, the second largest corporate contributor being Intel , followed by IBM and Novell.
While Nokia had by that time abandoned its Linux kernel based smartphone operating system MeeGo , in Nokia developers still contributed more code to the kernel than the developers employed by Google , which had released Android in and Chrome OS in By Microsoft ranged as the 17th most prolific corporate contributor to the kernel.
Its developers had first started contributing to the kernel in to improving the performance of Linux virtual machines running on top of the Windows Hyper-V hypervisor. To account for the occasional special patch release, the version 3 series of the kernel added a fourth digit to the version numbering.
In April , Torvalds released kernel version 4. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. July Main article: Usage share of operating systems Linux distributions that bundle the Linux kernel with applications , Unix programs and application packages are responsible for the rising popularity of Linux operating systems among users.
Many desktop Linux distributions including the Linux kernel exist, but the usage share of Linux distributions is low in comparison to other operating systems. Unlike standard monolithic kernels, device drivers are easily configured as modules , and loaded or unloaded while the system is running.
Also, unlike standard monolithic kernels, device drivers can be pre-empted under certain conditions; this feature was added to handle hardware interrupts correctly and to better support symmetric multiprocessing.
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A floating-point number can have three special values: Not-a-Number NaN or plus or minus Infinity. Moreover, like in the IEEE standard, zero is signed, i.
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